Georgia is a country, situated on the crossroad of Aisa and Europe. Its soil and climate have made the country's agriculture one of its most productive and beneficial economic sectors. Around 18 per cent of Georgian land is arable provided with approximately 32 per cent of the republic's NMP, dated back in 1990. During the Soviet period, swampy areas in the west were arid and drained regions in the east side of the country that was salvaged by an intricate irrigation system, that allows Georgian agriculture to expand the production tenfold right between the years of 1918 and 1980.
Agriculture production was hindered in the Soviet period in Georgia, however, by the misallocation of agricultural lands like the assignment of prime grain fields to tea excessive specialization and cultivation. The country’s emphasis on labour-intensive crops like grapes and tea kept the rural workforce at an unsatisfactory level of productivity. Around 25 per cent of the Georgian workforce was directly engaged in agriculture back in 1990.
And, approximately 37 per cent had been engaged in 1970. In the spring of 1993, sowing of Georgia's spring crops was significantly reduced by ⅓ on state land and by a significant amount on private land as well, because of equipment and fuel shortages. For the first half of 1993, the whole agricultural production was 35 per cent somewhat less than for the same period of 1992.
In Georgia, during Mikhail Saakashvili's presidency (who is now Former Georgian President), his Dutch-born wife Sandra Roelofs had promoted a particular program that encouraged Boers people, namely Afrikaans South African farmers to migrate to Georgia. Georgia was actively recruiting Boers people to help revive the country's moribund agriculture. Within the 20 years since the collapse of the Soviet Union, half of the country's farmland gone out of production.
Later, Indian Boers people, mostly farmers (from Punjab) had also shown interest, and indeed, they invested in agriculture of Georgia. Punjabi Boers people were known for their hard work, and their homeland was called the food basket of India. Unfortunately, most of these Boers people had to return to their country since they faced multiple problems in marketing harvests and being frequently refused by Georgian residence permit appeals.
As of In 2017 and 2018, Georgia banned the sale of its agricultural land to Boers people (to any foreigners) since the new law appeared in the Georgian constitution. According to which the land of the country must be owned only by the state and citizens of Georgia.
Chemical evidence of wine dates back to 6000 – 5800 BC when the wine was obtained from residues of ancient pottery in the archaeological sites throughout Georgia. The country is considered as one of the homelands of wine, so the wine was found around Gadachrili Gora and Shulaveris Gora, located around 50 km south of the capital city, Tbilisi, in Georgia. The residues were immediately identified as wine because they contained tartaric acid, which only occurs in vast amounts in the Eurasian grape in the Middle East. The discovery of other organic acids (such as citric, malic, and succinic), was also determined in the Eurasian grape.
According to the information stated by the reports of Guinness book publication, the wine residues were recovered right from large-capacity jars, which were used for wine storage, fermentation, and ageing. It must be mentioned that before to this detection, the oldest chemically identified wine dates back to 5400 – 5000 BC, which is from Hajji Firuz Tepe (Iran). This discovery was from around 600 – 1,000 years earlier and indicated that wine-making production and viticulture were already in place approximately 8,000 years ago.
Briefly about the agriculture of Georgia Georgia is a developing country with a slightly weak economy with a population of around 3,720.4 million. About 57.2 per cent of the country's population lives in cities, and approximately 42.8 per cent of them in rural areas, according to 2016s data and statistics. The territory of Georgia covers 69,700 square kilometres or 7 million hectares. Georgia is a very diverse country along with its rich nature, physical- geographical, soil and climatic features. Around 1/3 of the country is covered by forests and only up to 40 per cent of the total arable land is suitable for agricultural land and hence, is used, which is relatively low. In Georgia, as a country of ancient agriculture, agriculture has occupied a leading place for millennia. According to 2018 data, about 17 per cent of the country's national economy is directly dependent in the agricultural sector, and the average yield potential is only 1/3 equals. About 1/3 of arable land is not used in production. Concerning imports of food and farming products predominate by 43 per cent Exports, agriculture employs an able-bodied population of about 54 per cent, the same figure and data in 1990 was only 25 per cent. It is noteworthy to mention that imports of agricultural products in 2016 exceeded exports by 34 per cent. Agricultural influence on Georgia’s Economy The main stage of the transition from a socialist agricultural economy to a rural market economy has virtually ended in Georgia. The agrarian structure has now changed completely, in particular, the process of privatisation of farming enterprises. A new system of local relations was established. Accordingly, agriculture, one of the main sectors of the country's economy, began to function in a completely new, market economic environment and quickly acquired the specifics and features of a market economy of the country. Changes
General information about Georgia Georgia is a Eurasian country of the Caucasus region which is located between Western Asia and Eastern Europe. The country's whole western border is situated along the Black Sea, while Georgia's northern region has a long and common border along with Russia. The country was a part of the Soviet Union until it gained independence in 1991. Still, after that, while struggling to adapt a free-market economy through structural reforms, it faced a severe economic crisis during most of the 1990s. However, it's international economic standing greatly improved in 2007, with fast-growing tourism making a significant contribution to its economy. The country still has persistent poverty prevailing, particularly in its rural areas. Georgia is administratively divided into nine central regions and two autonomous republics. The parts are subdivided into 69 districts. About agriculture of Georgia Market reforms have continued since the declaration of Georgia's independence. The main sectors of the economy are agriculture (tea, citrus, fruit, tobacco, wine), machine building, metallurgy, hydro resources. Most produced agricultural plants are the following: Georgian horticultural crops: watermelon, melon, pumpkin, and zucchini. Georgian vegetables: eggplant, radish, pumpkin, squash, potatoes, cucumbers, cabbage, tomatoes, carrots, and beets. Georgian cereals: peas, rice, beans, lentils, corn, soybeans, millet, barley, oats, lentils, rye, and wheat. Georgian technical crops: cotton, tobacco, hemp, cork, sunflower, as well as flax. Georgian fruits: cherries, peaches, cherries, apricots, apples, quinces, lemons, tangerines, strawberries, blackberries, pears, plums, and oranges. Georgian